Heavy metal contamination prediction using ensemble model: Case study of Bay sedimentation, Australi
Lead (Pb) is a primary toxic heavy metal (HM) which present throughout the entire ecosystem. Some commonly observed challenges in HM (Pb) prediction using artificial intelligence (AI) models include overfitting, normalization, validation against classical AI models, and lack in learning/technology transfer. This study explores the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) model as a superior SuperLearning (SL) algorithms for Pb prediction. The proposed model was examined using historical data at the Bramble and Deception Bay (BB and DB) stations, Australia. The model was trained at one of the stations and transferred to a cross-station and vice versa. XGBoost showed higher reliability with less declination in (R2: coefficient of determination), i.e., 0.97 % over the testing phase, among others models at BB. At the cross-station (DB), the performance of the XGBoost model was decreased by 2.74 % (R2) against random forests (RF). The mean absolute error (MAE) observed 40 % (XGBoost) and 47 % (RF) less than artificial neural network (ANN). The XGBoost model performance declined by 3.44 % (R2) over testing (DB), which is minor among validated models. At the cross-station (BB), the XGBoost model showed the least decrement in terms of R2, i.e., 7.99 % against the ANN (8.31 %), RF (10.26 %), and support vector machine (SVM, 36.19 %).