In India and other developing countries like Bangladesh,Pakistan,Burma,Srilanka,etc global impact of poor Sanitation on Human and Infant Health is beyond imagination.It is estimated that 1/7th of world population defecate openly and of these 60% live in India.It is also estimated that 10 Million of children under the age of 5,die globally every year due to improper Sanitation and out of these 2.4 are Indians. It becomes there fore very important to ensure pure waste water discharge from toilets to maintain proper standards of health.

Bio-toilets provide a complete solid waste management solution as these provide 100% sludge free disposal of Human Waste and eliminate need for Manual scavenging, besides decomposing solid waste to water and biogas.

It is not only an eco friendly solution but also 100% hazard free and Maintenance free.The best part of this technology is that it functions efficiently at subzero temperatures between -55 degrees centrigade.It plays a critical role in eliminating disease causing pathogens completely so plays its part effectively in Preventable Health care.

The main constituents of Bio Toilet are Pre fabricated above the ground shelter and Bio Digester tank. Bio digester tank is a cylindrical structure with the provision of inlet for human waste and out let for Bio gas. Temp in the bio - digester is maintained between 5-30 degree C. A person can use the toilet which is connected to the bio-digester. Night soil degradation occurs through microbial reaction which converts it into bio gas. The smell of night soil, the disease causing organisms in the night soil and the solid matter are eliminated totally. On dry weight basis 90% of the solid waste is reduced. The gaseous effluent (bio-gas) is continuously let off to the atmosphere. Bio Gas can be used for various energy incentive activities like cooking water and room heating. Liquid effluent can be drained to any surface or soak pit with out any environmental hazards. Human waste disposal in high altitude and low temp areas, Moving Railway coaches, Buses, Big Cities, Mines, remote areas, Beaches, Rural areas, long distance buses is a burning problem.

The problem has further aggravated in glaciers where ambient temperature drops to -40 degree C and lower. The low temp stops/ delays the natural bio-degradation of the waste leading to its preservation (accumulation) for long time resulting in environmental hazard. Local heating by direct sunlight exposes the waste buried in the ice causing nuisance and foul smell. The melting ice takes the waste to rivers disturbing the aquatic eco system. More over human waste is also responsible for spreading of water born diseases like typhoid, cholera, Shigellosis, Amebic Dysenteries, Diarrhea etc.

This technology is suitable for any area/ application in whole World. The process under this technology culminates in to treated effluent which is free from Pathogens and is also environmentally acceptable. The technology has major two components:

A consortium of anaerobic bacteria formulated and adopted to work at temp as low as 5 degree C. This is the component which acts as inoculums (seed material) to the bio digester and converts the organic waste into methane and carbon-dioxide. The anaerobic process in- activates the pathogens responsible for water born diseases. Bio digester serves as reaction vessel for bio methanation and provides the anaerobic conditions and required temp for the bacteria. The optimum temp is maintained by microbial heat, insulation of the reactor and solar heating.

Application of Bio-Toilets

Himalayan Regions, Mountains, health resorts, ecosensitive places, Glaciers, Railway Coaches, Buses, Highways, Rural Areas, Households, Village Central Points, Sea Ports, Air Ports, Industrial & Mining Areas, Metro Cities, Educational Institutions, Pilgrimage sites, Slums or any Toilet having Septic Tanks

Stationary Toilet (ST-Series)

Independently Mounted Mobile Toilets

For Ships and Boats Trailer Mounted Mobile Toilet Clusters

Cluster of Toilet cabins( form 4- 16 cabins ) as per the requirement of customer is mounted on Tractor trailer / jeep trailer/ Truck . The trailer can be taken to the place where ever required


About Author:Dr. Manzoor Ahmad Yetoo, is a Technical Consultant to Ministry of Environment, Safety & Forest, Govt. of Jammu & Kashmir and President, Ashoka Engineering Ltd. Heis an expert in environmentproject & waste Management, occupational safety,health & pollution control and known expert for IRCA. Dr. Manzoor isauthor of several books and research papers. like, SavingWater Bodies in Kashmir, Solid Waste Mgmt. for Power Generation in J&K, Hand book of Pollution Control etc. His other articles can be seen here