Free Water for India

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Free Water for India

Since the inception of  EnviroChem Services (OPC) Pvt. Ltd.,  we have been seeking the possibility of providing Free Water   in  Tier 1 Cities in India.  Currently, the following cities come under the Tier 1 classification of India.

  1. Ahmedabad
  2. Bengaluru
  3. Chennai
  4. Delhi
  5. Hyderabad
  6. Kolkata
  7. Mumbai
  8. Pune

These said eight cities are considered  metro  cities and developed cities of India. The benefit of living in a metro city in India is the eligibility for  House Rent Allowance (HRA) Tax Exemption.  For the metro cities, the HRA is computed as 50% of the sum of  Basic Salary  &  Dearness Allowance (DA).  Hence, a person employed in a metro city is eligible for a Tax exemption of 50% of the salary, enabling them to expence more on lifestyle. These characteristics can be beneficial for the proposed model.

Considering the available population data of these eight cities and the suggested benchmark of  135 liters per capita per day (lpcd)  for urban water supply by the  Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA),  the water demand of the metro cities is as follows.

  1. Ahmedabad -  63,52,254 Metropolitan (Census 2011) - 82,54,560 Metropolitan (Projected 2022)  - 1,115 MLD Water Demand
  2. Bengaluru -  84,99,399 Metropolitan (Census 2011) - 1,27,42,580 Metropolitan (Projected 2022)  - 1,725 MLD Water Demand
  3. Chennai -  1,63,14,838 Metropolitan (Census 2011) - 1,12,27,585 Metropolitan (Projected 2022)  - 1,520 MLD Water Demand
  4. Delhi -  1,63,14,838 Metropolitan (Census 2011) - 3,11,31,509 Metropolitan (Projected 2022)  - 4,200 MLD Water Demand
  5. Hyderabad -  77,49,334 Metropolitan (Census 2011) - 1,02,22,490 Metropolitan (Projected 2022)  - 1,385 MLD Water Demand
  6. Kolkata -  1,41,12,536 Metropolitan (Census 2011) - 1,49,90,216 Metropolitan (Projected 2022)  - 2,025 MLD Water Demand
  7. Mumbai -  1,84,14,288 Metropolitan (Census 2011) - 2,06,56,390 Metropolitan (Projected 2022)  - 2,790 MLD Water Demand
  8. Pune -  50,49,968 Metropolitan (Census 2011) - 68,05,950 Metropolitan (Projected 2022) -  920 MLD Water Demand

Further, the  National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog  has developed the  Composite Water Management Index (CWMI)  to enable effective water management in Indian states. Based on the CWMI of Indian states, nearly all the metro cities are in the better performing states, having CWMI of more than 50, except Delhi and Kolkata (No Data Available).

  1. Ahmedabad - Gujarat - CWMI 2.0 - 75
  2. Bengaluru - Karnataka - CWMI 2.0 - 59
  3. Chennai - Tamil Nadu - CWMI 2.0 - 58
  4. Delhi - National Capital Territory - CWMI 2.0 - 20
  5. Hyderabad - Telangana - CWMI 2.0 - 50
  6. Kolkata - West Bengal - CWMI 2.0 - No Data Available
  7. Mumbai - Maharastra - CWMI 2.0 - 56
  8. Pune - Maharastra - CWMI 2.0 - 56

For the computation of the CWMI, NITI Aayog has considered the following  nine themes.

  1. Source Augmentation and Restoration of Waterbodies - 5% (Weightage)
  2. Source Augmentation (Groundwater) - 15%
  3. Major and medium irrigation - Supply Side Management - 15%
  4. Watershed Development - Supply Side Management - 10%
  5. Participatory Irrigation Practices - Demand Side Management - 10%
  6. Sustainable on-farm Water use Practices - Demand Side Management - 10%
  7. Rural Drinking Water - 10%
  8. Urban Water Supply & Sanitation - 10%
  9. Policy and Governance - 15%

The said nine themes had further subdivided into  28 indicators  for the computation of CWMI. For our proposed model, the following indicators shall ensure the quantification of the proposed model implementation in the metro cities.

  1. Indicator 22: Urban Population Supplied with Drinking Water
  2. Indicator 23: Capacity installed to Treat Urban Wastewater
  3. Indicator 24: Percentage of Wastewater Treated

Further, Indicator 27: Percentage of Households being provided Water Supply and Charged for Water in the Urban Areas justifies the implementation of the proposed model in the metro cities, as the  State of Goa  has already achieved a 100% score.

Our proposed model is partially coinciding with the  One Water Approach.  For the current water management scenario, implementing the   One Water Approach, where all the water systems, regardless of their source, are interlinked and managed to give  equal worth  to water, seems to be the best sustainable solution.

The One Water Approach ensures that the water is recycled and reused several times. The utilization of stormwater for groundwater recharge and natural vegetation, and the implementation of  hybrid systems,  the combination of grey and green infrastructures, further ensure valuable resources to fight against water scarcity. For implementation operation and maintenance of such hybrid systems, the need for active collaborations with all stakeholders, including communities, further ensures the implementation of the One Water Approach. Further, the proposed model will aid in solving Rural-Urban Water Disputes and constrain the Water Disputes between States of India.

Moreover, the recent NITI Aayog's draft report examining the proposed role of the  Water Regulation Authority (WRA)  in water trading of  690 Billion cubic meters (bcm)  of  surface water  and  433 bcm  of  groundwater  shall be beneficial in the implementation of the proposed model. The water trading between the metro cities and nearby rural areas will ensure a positive cash flow for the proposed model.

Any comments and suggestions will be appreciated.

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