WASH for Schools in South Asia

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WASH for School Children

WASH in Schools (Water, sanitation and hygiene promotion in schools), supports global efforts

To realize our vision of a world where all children go to schools that provide a safe, healthy and

Comfortable environment where children grow, learn and thrive. WASH in Schools improves

Attendance, health and cognitive development, increases girls' participation, establishes positive

Hygiene behaviors, offers the opportunity to introduce better WASH practices in families and


WASH in Schools in South Asian Countries

WASH in Schools information is presented for the eight countries in the South Asia region: Afghanistan Bangladesh, Bhutan, India Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.Information on WASH in Schools policies, coverage, strategies, conditions, standards, hygiene education, etc. has been presented for each country individually


Maldives 0.02%


Bhutan 0.03%

Srilanka 1.3%

Nepal 1.5 %

Afghanistan 2 %

Bangladesh 8%

Pakistan 9.5 %


78% of the total population

WASH in Schools in South Asian Countries


Total Population

% of Children under 18

Total No of Public School

WASH conditions

National Standard for WASH

Action Plan

Afg hanis tan

31.4 million

53% of the total population

13,488 schools out of which 80% schools are in rural areas

Toilet Facilities : 95% schools do not have separate toilet facilities for Girls and Boys Most of the schools provides single sex education.

Toilet facilities :

No data available currently. Ministry of education has designed standerd for school toilets which will be introduced soon.

Drinking water: 1 litre water per student per day

  1. Call to Action Program: National WASH policy for Afghanistan which aims to provide WASH facilities in schools by 2015.Govt Adopted "Call to Action" Program has brought increased attention to school Nationwide training conducted on construction and rehabilitation of toilets, washing places , installation of hand pumps in schools
  2. Teachers Guide-Health Education : Ministry of education has designed guideline on menstrual education for teachers and trainers and separate guide book on hygiene practices for adolescent girls. Two female master trainers will be hired. These master trainers will train three teachers in one school who will further provide training to their other staff members.
  3. Introduction of children friendly space (CFS ): School buildings having boundary walls where all hygiene facilities, participatory teaching facilities available for children.CFS trainers provided with training at provincial, distt and village level.
  4. Monitoring System (EMIS) Ministry of rural rehabilitation development is planning to designEducation monitoring information system (EMIS) to maintain database of all WASH projects in schools and community.

guideline on menstrual hygiene and health for trainers and supervisors

and a supplementary guidebook on hygiene practices




37% of the total population

78,685 schools out of which 60,957 are Govt supported

Toilets : 1 toilet for 130 students.

Soaps for Hand washing practices: Only 17% school provide soaps and 6% children wash hands with Soaps.

Toilets for children : 1 for 50 children.

Toilets for female teachers :1 for 10 female Toilets for male teachers 1 for 10 male teachers

Drinking water : 5 liter water per student per day.

  1. Water supply and sanitation sector development Plan (PDP) 2011-2025:

National plan and budget allocations for WASH activities in schools. The Govt will implement WASH program in schools in collaboration with UN agencies, NGO. INGO's and civil societies.

  1. Distribution of materials for hygiene education:

UNICEF and save the children developed and distributed Guide books, training modules, flip charts, flash cards ,games, cartoons etc . Hygiene education and related subjects are not included in school curriculum.

  1. School brigade activities :

School hygienebrigade have been formed In 35 Schools initially at capital Dhaka. There are 20-25 students in a brigade with 2teachers (1 male and 1 female) as brigade leader. From each class 3-4 students are selected to from the brigade. The brigade has been formed with some specific objectives as to increase the promotional knowledge on safe water, sanitation and hygiene among the students and to inspire them changing their

Conventional behavior Hand-washing with soap is the most useful and low-cost means to prevent diarrheal and acute respiratory infections.



35% of the total population

617 schools and 207 registered monastic schools

No data on availability of soaps, toilets or hygiene management available it is assumed that only 70% of existing WASH facilities are functional

No standards and Norms designed for WASH facilities.Govt aims to provide.

Toilets : 1 for 25 girls and 1 toilet for 50 boys.

Drinking water :1 liter per student per day

  1. School health Program : Public Health Engineering Division (PHED), designed the Comprehensive School Health Program Ministry of Education and UNICEF started supporting institutional water supply and sanitation PHED provides technical support for the construction of water supply and sanitation facilities. Technical and funding support for school infrastructure mostly in lower secondary, middle secondary and higher secondary schools.
  2. Educating for Gross National Happiness

After piloting Child Friendly Schools from 2005 to 2009, MOE introduced the ‘ Education for Gross National Happiness' concept. This has much in common with Child Friendly Schools, including the ‘Green Schools for Green Bhutan' approach, with adequate functional toilets for boys, girls and staff, as well as safe drinking water. Children trained with hygiene practices other aspects that equip them with knowledge and skills related to WASH.

  1. School Health Clubs :

School health club includes one hygiene captain from students and health coordinator from teachers which creates hygiene awareness, regular cleanliness checkups in collaboration with health centers.


1.2 billion

36 % of the total population

13.2 lac

Some 27.6 million children, 15% of the children

Enrolled in schools in India, still do not have safe Drinking water and sanitation in their schools. Water supply functioning facilities are in very poor condition needs improvement and also there is also urgent need of installation of new WASH facilities.

Toilets for children:

Girls toilets :

1 toilet unit of one toilet plus

3-4 urinals for 80-120 girls.

Boys toilets:

1toilet unit of one toilet plus

3-4 urinals for 80-120 boys.

Drinking water:

Drinking water source within the school premises.

  1. School Sanitation and Hygiene Education (SSHE) This programme started in 1999, under the government's Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) programme. Under SSHE, water, sanitation and hand washing facilities are provided in schools and hygiene education is linked to homes and communities. TSC also aims to provide early childhood development centres known as Anganwadi (pre-school) centers, with toilet facilities to encourage toilet use amongst young children as well as

Their mothers.

  1. Child Friendly Schools and Systems, as mentioned in SSA, embrace a multi-dimensional concept of quality and equity, addressing the total needs of the child as a learner and a comprehensive approach for quality education. The three guiding principles are: (1) child-centered, (2) democratic participation and (3)


  1. The National Water Policy mandates the provision of access to clean drinking water across the country. This also covers the provision of clean drinking water in schools and

Anganwadi (Pre-School) centers.

  1. Right to Education (RTE) Act. The RTE Act provides a legally enforceable rights framework with certain time bound targets that State Governments must adhere to. The schedule of the RTE Act lays down the norms and standards (including drinking water and sanitation) for School buildings. A school building has to be an all weather structure with at least one classroom for each teacher, barrier-free access, and separate toilets for boys and girls, safe and adequate drinking water for all children.



33.5% of the total population

218 public schools out of which 193 are in rural areas

Half to two-thirds of schools have hand

Washing facilities available. 50-60 % have soap available

For hand washing. Two third of schools reported cleaning their toilets by staff. Water supply schemes are mostly damaged which need extensive repairs. Poorly designed school infrastructure and lack of trained staff for hygiene education.

Girls Toilet :1 for 50 girls

Boys Toilet :1 for 50 boys

Drinking Water :2 litres water per student per day. One washing stand for 50 students

  1. HPSI initiative:

The Health Promoting Schools initiative (HPSI) was launched in 2004 and piloted in select schools in Male, the capital of The Maldives mainstreaming health into education. Policy decision to include HPSI concepts into quality indicators of CFBS Child-

  1. Friendly Baraabu Schools (CFBS)

As a move towards mainstreaming school health into the education System. The proportion of primary schools with at least basic water supply and sanitation for boys and girls is the highest among the countries in south Asia

  1. National Plan for WASH in Schools The Government has a national plan for WASH in Schools and allocates funding for WASH in Schools in the national budget. The total budgeted amount for school water and sanitation was Approx. US$ 200,000 in 2011. This includes repair and maintenance of water and sanitation.


29.9 million

43% of the total population

27,174 schools

36% of schools have separate toilets for girls. Often, toilet blocks are not maintained

For girls. This is mostly because schools lack the skills and

budget for operation and maintenance

Of their facilities and also they donot have adequate facilities for hand washing.



Child gender- and disability-friendly designs for WASH in

Schools have been introduced that meet the minimum standards.

Toilet for Girls: 1 for 50 girls.

Toilet for Boys: 1 for 50 boys.

Drinking water and hand washing source : A tap with potable water within school premises,

a water filter in every classroom and a hand

washing station with soap

  1. Child friendly school initiative In 2010, Ministry of education introduced the Child-Friendly School Initiative framework with nine aspects of quality education, including indicators for child-, gender- and differently-abled friendly WASH in Schools facilities and basic hygiene education Components.
  2. Establishment of WASH working group

In 2010, Ministry of education approved the establishment of a WASH working group during The MOE Joint Annual Review. This working group comprises representatives from various sections of the Department of Education and development Partners. The working group's objectives are to support investment for WASH in Schools through the current Educational system. The Government of Nepal allocated a budget of US$15 million to construct nationwide 5,500 girl-friendly toilets, an indication of the Government's commitment to WASH in schools and gender Equity.

  1. School Lead Total Sanitation:

Nepal has pioneered School-Led Total Sanitation (SLTS), which has shown that WASH in Schools can benefit surrounding Communities also. Children are the change agents in the SLTS approach.


173.5 million

42.1% of the total population

124,385 primary schools

About 74 % of girls and 48 % boys in primary schools have adequate

toilets and 81% of girls and 75 % of

boys at primary schools have access

To drinking water. There is an increase ratio of water borne diseases

every day, some 670,000

children miss school due to illnesses

that are mostly water-borne

There is neither a National Plan of Action nor a national

Budget allocation for WASH. Ministry of education has however designed guidelines for WASH in school infrastructure

Toilet for Girls : 1 for 25

Toilets for Boys : 1 for 50 boys.

Toilets for teachers : 1 toilet for teachers separate for male and female.

Drinking water: 5 liters of water per pupil per day and one cooler covered water container in each class room

  1. The WASH in Schools programme :This program in Pakistan is supported by the UNICEF Education and WASH sections to ensure that every child-friendly school is a WASH-friendly school as per the school WASH Standards.
  2. It includes improved sanitation facilities separately for boys and girls, ensure availability of safe drinking water,
  3. Teachers training on SSHE School Safety Health Education and motivate students to adopt hygiene practices they also monitor hygiene behaviors of the students
  4. Formation of School Management Committees , with teachers, students,

parents and the community

working together to

promote good hygiene


  1. Formation of Environment Clubs , with school children from all grades, to ensure that students participate actively in making and keeping their school WASH friendly
  2. The National Education

Management Information

System (NEMIS)

It is functional, managed

By the Department of

Water and Education. And reflects Sanitation coverage in four Provinces. WASH for schools data is used in planning for the provision of WASH facilities in schools


20.86 million

29.5% of the total population

9662 Govt Schools

There is no information regarding

functionality or rehabilitation

Needs of facilities. Inadequate water supply sources and drinking water sources at various schools which needs improvement.

National standard for WAS in schools are

Toilets for children : 1 toilet for 50-90 girls and boys separate facilities.

Toilet for teachers : 2-5 toilets depending upon the number of teachers.

Internal proposal for WASH facilities in School :

In 2010 Ministry of Education developed an internal proposal to ensure that all schools would have functional WASH in Schools facilities within three years, for provision of safe drinking water expanding and upgrading toilets in schools with inadequate toilets and and running skills based health education. Schools do receive a dedicated annual budget allocation for WASH in Schools operation,

Repair and maintenance.

School Safety Health Promotion: Health and hygiene promotion includes national, Provincial and zonal Health Promotion Committees. Each school has an advisory committee on health promotion and a student health promotion club, responsible for

preparing and implementing an annual school health

promotion planSHPP brought WASH under the broader perspective of health,

focusing on overall physical

and emotional well-being of

The child. SHPP is based

on knowledge and behavior

Promotion rather than traditional teaching.