Fertilizer Response to Crops

Which factors ​affect soil ​nutrient ​availability to ​crops?  ​ Which factors,​ apart ​from rainfall, ​climate and ​length of ​cropping ​season ​affect ​fertilizer ​response? ​ I am doing a ​research about ​interlinking ​nutrition, ​soil and ​fertilizer ​dosing so any ​help is welcome.