In Conversation with: Sanitation Guru – Toilet Man of India
The Water Network had the honor to talk to Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak, one of the most influential people when it comes to sanitation.
Dr. Pathak is a great humanist and social reformer of contemporary India. He is the founder of Sulabh International, an India-based social service organization which works to promote human rights, environmental sanitation, non-conventional sources of energy, waste management and social reforms through education. Dr. Pathak is the Padma Bhushan recipient from the Government of India and was also awarded Stockholm Water Prize in year 2009, and these are only some of his achievements. He provided us with some exciting information and facts and Water Network is thrilled to share them with all of our members.
Q1. Thank you, Dr. Pathak, for sharing your valuable time with The Water Network. It would be interesting to know how did you develop an interest in the sanitation sector?
Answer: In respect of the question asked it will be useful to tell, in brief, about the background and how I developed interest in the sanitation sector.
In the year 1968 by coincidence I joined the Bihar Gandhi Centenary Celebration Committee as a social worker. There I read the autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi as well as other books related to him which had a profound influence and effect on me. The Gandhi Centenary Committee was formed in 1967 to celebrate the birth centenary of Mahatma Gandhi which fell in the year 1969.
This Committee had taken up numerous programmes one of which was to restore the human rights and dignity of untouchables who used to clean human excreta manually carrying it as headload for disposal and who were also referred to as human scavengers. Later on I came to know that this subhuman practice stemmed from the genesis of untouchability and had been continuing for the past nearly 5000 years through the Vedic, Buddhist, Mauryan, Mughal and British periods as mentioned earlier.
One day, while I was working in the office, the General Secretary of the Centenary Committee asked me to meet him. I went to see him and he asked me to sit down. After that he said “seeing your commitment and performance in this short period that you have worked with the Centenary Committee, I would advise you to engage yourself fully to fulfill the dreams of Mahatma Gandhi – his unfinished agenda to restore the human rights and dignity of untouchable scavengers.
This will be the best tribute by the Centenary Committee to Mahatma Gandhi.” On this I replied, “how can I work with untouchables because I belong to the Brahmin caste.” I then narrated an incident of my childhood days. I told him, “A lady untouchable, at that time referred to as “dom”, used to come to our house to deliver utensils made from bamboos and when she used to return my grandmother used to sprinkle water up to the area which belonged to us in order to cleanse it. I was also curious as a child to observe that while many other people also used to come to my house my grandmother did not do like wise but why only when that particular lady she came to the house. People used to tell me that she was an untouchable and whoever touches her will be polluted. Being a curious child, when my grandmother was not around, I used to touch her to see whether I became polluted and was there any change of complexion of my body as a result of touching her.
One day, by chance when the lady came to deliver the utensils and started returning, my grandmother, started her usual sprinkling of water and cleansing ritual, I touched the lady untouchable which my grandmother saw. She made a hue and cry and asked the neighbouring boys to come, catch hold of me and forced me to swallow cow dung and cow urine. Then she gave me Ganges water to drink in order to purify me. It was a trauma in my childhood which I have never forgotten to this day. So how can I work with these untouchable human scavengers.”
Secondly, I told him, “Sir, I am a sociologist by background and furthermore I am not an engineer. Unless I give an alternative to the bucket or dry toilets which are cleaned by human scavengers how can I ask people not to use these toilets.” The General Secretary heard me patiently but said “I do not know your caste or whether you are an engineer or not but by seeing your performance, your dedication as well as commitment in this short period that you have worked with us, I see light in you and strongly feel that you can fulfill the dreams of Mahatma Gandhi to bring the untouchables in the mainstream of the society on a par with others.” To this, I had no answer. I became sombre and quietly I left the place.
It was taught to us that if somebody wants to work for the cause of a community then first and foremost one has to build a rapport with the community to know in detail their attitudes, their lifestyle, their behaviour and to partake food with them so that one could gather knowledge and information about the community in depth and in detail. Towards this end, I went and lived with them for three months in a colony of untouchable human scavengers in Bettiah, Champaran, a small town in the State of Bihar, coincidently the same place from where Mahatma Gandhi had started his freedom movement. While I was going to live with these untouchable human scavengers my father was both upset and sad. The Brahmin community turned against me and my father-in-law was very angry with me. He was absolutely against my living with the untouchables in their colony as also working in the sphere of sanitation and building toilets. I told him that my entire life has undergone a sea change and these are only part of subsequent processes. I have now started turning over the pages of history of India so far untouchability is concerned. Either I will be successful or I will get lost but I cannot just sit and watch.
While living in the colony many incidents happened. I vividly recall two of them. One day on a fine morning there was a sudden hue and cry in the neighbourhood. I went and enquired. A newly married girl was weeping. She was being forced by her in-laws and even her husband himself to go to Bettiah town to clean the bucket toilets. She was crying bitterly and was not at all ready to go. I went and intervened. Her mother-in-law asked one question from me “If she doesn’t clean bucket toilets which is our profession, what will she do from tomorrow? If she sells vegetables who will buy from her hands. She has no alternative and is destined to do this job for her whole life.” At that time I had no answer. It was certainly a very tragic situation that a person once born as an untouchable has to die as an untouchable. There is no scheme for these untouchables to enable them escape from the social prison where they have to remain imprisoned for their whole life. One can be released from prison one day but not from this social prison created by society.
While I was in the colony of the untouchable I was in two minds about whether to continue or not to continue this work because of the opposition from my family and the Brahmin community and their combined concentrated rage aimed at me and my mission.
After few days I was going to Bettiah town in the afternoon to have a cup of tea with some friends from the colony. We saw that a boy wearing a red shirt was attacked by a bull. People rushed to save him but somebody from the back of the crowd shouted that the boy belonged to the untouchable colony. On hearing this everybody left him in that injured state. With the help of friends while taking him to the local hospital the boy died on the way. That day, there and then I forgot my family, my caste, my community and I took a solemn vow to fulfill the dreams of Mahatma Gandhi to rescue the untouchables from the shackles of slavery which had chained them for the past 5000 years.
Q2. Do you feel the scenario of Manual Scavenging has changed in India now? What could be the best strategy to eradicate the Manual Scavenging from India?
Answer: An idea about how the scenario of manual scavenging has changed in India by now can be had by giving the dimension of the problem which may be gleaned from surveys conducted from time to time about the number of persons engaged in scavenging in the country.
In the earlier censuses, no attempt was made to collect information regarding the number of scavengers engaged in manual scavenging on an all India basis. Some scanty information was, however, available in respect of some States as can be seen from the statement below:
Number of scavengers as given in earlier Censuses based on ethnographic notes
S.No., States - Census Figures
- Bihar, Orissa and Bengal (1881) - 5,31,732
- Marwar (1894) - 1242
- United Provinces of Agra and Ondh (1891) - 4,14,532
- Punjab, North-West Frontier Provinces (1891) - 11,58,979
- Bombay Presidency (1901) - 81094
- Central Provinces (1911) - 30,000
The first all-India census to collect this information was held in 1931 under J.H. Hutton, Census Commissioner, according to which the number of scavengers was 19,57,460 (male: 10,38,678 and female 9,18,782). This also covered the areas which are now in Pakistan. In 1961 census the number of sweepers and scavengers was recorded as 35.32 lakh of whom 802,400 persons (505,404 male and 297,396 female) were recorded as engaged in scavenging.
The number of sweepers and scavengers as recorded in 1971 census was 50.28 lakhs but no information was collected regarding the number of scavengers. During the subsequent censuses, information regarding a number of scavengers was not collected.
However, in July 1989, the Planning Commission constructed a Task Force for suggesting measures to abolish scavenging with particular emphasis on rehabilitation of scavengers. The Task Force estimated the number of scavengers as 4 lakhs (3.34 in urban areas and 67,220 in the rural areas) in the country in 1989.
The information regarding the number of scavengers in the country was not collected during the 2001 and 2011 censuses.
The Ministry of Welfare (now Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment) collected the number of scavengers in the country, based on a rapid survey in March 1992 by the State Govts. which was reported as 7.70 lakhs, of whom about 4.23 lakh manual scavengers and their dependents were assisted for rehabilitation during 1992 to 2005.
The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment under their scheme ‘Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers’ (SRMS) in 2007, identified 1.18 lakh manual scavengers, of whom 78,941 were provided financial assistance.
The Ministry undertook a survey of manual scavengers in 2013 and could identify 5141 manual scavengers in the urban areas and 7612 in rural areas – totalling 12,753.
As for the best strategy to eradicate manual scavenging I would like to mention the one that has been adopted by Sulabh and which has yielded results. My story regarding this goes to the day when in one of my tours I visited Alwar town where are located headquarters of the district Alwar in the State of Rajasthan. There I went to the locality, Huzoori Gate Mohalla, peopled by scavengers. I was curious to know about them. I however was met by indifference and was told the reason of their indifference was that many had come to satisfy only their curiosity and had shown no further interest in taking any step to do anything concrete to improve their condition. Being asked whether they would like to give up scavenging was met with derision and evoked amusement amongst them. The query was in a way stonewalled because they had not only not talked with a stranger on such matters but had not even lifted their veils in their presence. I however persisted and was rewarded by an answer in the affirmative from them about their desire to be freed of scavenging and take up some other work.
This set the ball-rolling.
Pondering over the problem, I hit upon the idea of training the scavengers in alternative skills consequent to being relieved from scavenging. For the purpose I founded a training institution bearing nomenclature 'Nai Disha' that is “New Direction”. Arrangements were made to impart training in market-oriented trades viz of tailoring, embroidery, fashion designing, beauty-care etc. and to learn the art of making pickles, noodles and papadum etc. Their products were linked with markets viz hotels and canteens etc. The training lasts for approximately three years. Besides, stipend on an average of Rs. 3,700/- p.m. is given to each trainee. The person, relieved from demeaning work is able to earn anywhere between Rs. 10,000/- to Rs, 15,000, per month against which earlier he/she used to earn hardly Rs. 200/- to 300/- per month doing work of scavenging. Through learning three R’s, they are able to operate their bank accounts opened in their names. A socially significant development has been that the products made by them are consumed by the locals, who earlier had shunned these persons. The net result has been that to a considerable extent the liberated scavengers have become economically self-reliant.
Q3. Can you please explain us a bit about the Sulabh Technology?
Answer: I founded Sulabh International Social Service Organisation in 1970 after entering the field of sanitation in 1968. The technology/ies then available for disposal of human waste besides the one of bucket toilet were of sewerage and septic tank systems. Sewerage system though good was and continues to be very costly, requiring huge amount of water to flush out sewage and difficult to operate and maintain. It has not gained wide acceptance. In India though sewerage was introduced in Calcutta in 1870, by now according to Central Pollution Control Board, of 7935 towns/cities only 929 have sewerage system and that too with partial coverage and again that too with Sewage Treatment plants in only 150 towns. The septic tank system was/and is also costly to construct, requires cleaning which is expensive and the wet sludge taken out is health hazardous. Cleaning of the tank requires services of scavengers whose engagement stands banned by law. Pursuing implementation of the aforesaid two systems was not found, not even now, feasible more so in a developing country like, say, India.
Use of bucket toilets too requires services of scavengers which as mentioned is prohibited under law, besides being associated with untouchability which too is banned. On the other hand the option of defecation in the open was and is, easily available and was/is therefore widely practiced. The situation therefore demanded a novel approach and a practical solution.
But absence of an appropriate technology was the biggest obstacle in search of a solution which would persuade householders to use a household toilet rather than resort to defecation in the open. To find a suitable technology I started studying relevant literature and while doing so came across a WHO publication viz “Excreta Disposal for Rural Areas and Small Communities” by Edmund G. Wagner and J.N. Lanoix, where inter alia it is said “Suffice it to say here that, out of the heterogeneous mass of latrine designs produced over the world, the sanitary pit privy emerges as the most practical and universally applicable type.”
About the practicability of adoption of the technology in urban areas, in particular, I thought that if the technology was applicable in rural areas then there was no reason why it could not be adopted in urban areas as well, provided conditions remained similar mutatis mutandis. Being of the view that imagination and application of mind is as important as knowledge of the basics of technology itself, I made improvements and innovated the design of the pan as also the trap with water seal making use of toilet malodour proof and leading to conserving water required for flushing purpose; this was done by fixing the pan with a steep slope of 250-280 and an especially designed trap with 20mm water seal, both allowing smooth flow-out of excreta. And, above all introduced alternate use of two pits where one is used at a time and when, after the excreta fills up the first pit, it is diverted to the second pit. In a household of 4-5 persons it takes approximately 2-3 years for a pit, a metre wide and approximately 2 metres deep, to get filled up. By the time the second pit gets filled up, excreta in the first pit dries up. The process of alternate use can continue as it is repeatable. The inner lining of the pit is done by fixing bricks in a honeycomb pattern leaving the soil in the intervening space to face the inside of the pit. This enables absorption of gases, leading to dispensing with attachment of a vent pipe, making the functioning environmental friendly too by preventing release of harmful greenhouse gases and simultaneously keeping up the temperature allowing the toilet to function in deep-winter as it did in Srinagar even when the temperature went down to -140C or at Kabul where temperature went down to -300C. The whole mechanism turned out to be an invention of mine of two-pit ecologically compatible compost toilet.
The implementation of the two pit technology is done through advocacy and adopting procedures described below:-
Sulabh initiates the process firstly, by its volunteers going door to door to create awareness amongst people about the importance of installation of a household toilet. This includes informing them about the advantages of a Sulabh design based toilet namely, its technical and hygienic feasibility, economic affordability, environment and ecologically friendly nature, indigenously available material based construction and its cultural acceptability. Besides its design and specifications are modifiable to suit householders’ needs and affordability; there is elimination of mosquito, insect and fly breeding. It can be constructed in different physical, geological and hydrogeological conditions. It is free from health hazards and does not pollute surface or ground water, if proper precautions and safeguards are taken during construction. It can be located within the premises as its use is free from foul smell; can be constructed on upper floors of houses.
The pits are generally designed for 3-year desludging intervals, but if desired, they can be designed for longer periods or reducible even to two years. Its maintenance is easy, simple and costs very little; only one litre of water for flushing is required as against need, in conventional flush toilet, of 10 to 12 litres of water; needs space less than that is necessary for installation of a septic tank toilet system. It does not need scavengers for cleaning the pits or disposal of sludge, thus eliminating scavenging and after being relieved not being treated as untouchables when trained and becoming economically self-reliant. This (pit cleaning) can be done by the householder. It makes available rich fertilizer and soil conditioner; can be easily connected to sewer when introduced in the area. A low volume flushing cistern can be attached to avoid pour flushing.
As said Sulabh constructs and maintains public toilets. The need for community toilets arises in places where people congregate or at places frequently visited by them like markets, railway stations, cinema halls, bus stands etc. etc. in urban areas where there is working population e.g. of office goers. There is need also of community based toilets in places like hostels, hospitals, hotels etc. In deciding the location which should have a public toilet a survey is conducted jointly by representatives of Sulabh and local self-government. They find out how great is the demand for such a toilet and also about availability of land. The local body does funding. Funding may also be done by an institution or a charitable organization. The public toilets are run by Sulabh on ‘pay and use’ basis. The revenue that is generated is utilized for day to day maintenance. In these toilets there is provision for water and electricity. Sulabh also provides water and soap powder to wash one’s hands. Besides the toilet seats there is also provision for urinals. The maintenance is carried out round the clock. At times the earning from a pay and use toilet is not commensurate with the expenditure. In such circumstance the system of cross subsidization is implemented where surplus generated from a particular toilet complex compensates the loss incurred in another toilet. As said the land is provided for by the local body or the sponsoring agency and though construction is done by Sulabh the ownership of the toilet complex continues to vest with the local body/ sponsoring agency and does not get transferred to Sulabh. Of late, in construction the BOT (Build, Operate and Transfer) system has been introduced. In multi-storied buildings and where there is community living viz. hostels, hospitals, hotels, for disposal of human waste public toilets are best suited.
Human excreta based biogas technology had remained unnoticed for long due to the fact that the available technology was not socially acceptable, as it required manual handling of human excreta. The design developed by Sulabh does not require manual handling of human excreta and there is recycling and resource recovery from the wastes. The Digester is built underground into which excreta from a public toilet flows under gravity. Inside the digester, biogas is produced due to anaerobic fermentation by the help of methanogenic bacteria. The biogas, thus produced is stored in inbuilt liquid displacement chamber. One cubic foot biogas is produced from the human excreta per person per day. Human excreta based biogas contains 65-66% methane, 32-34% carbon dioxide and, the rest is hydrogen sulphide and other gases in traces.
Biogas produced from human excreta can be and is being used for different purposes e.g. cooking, lighting, electricity generation and to warm oneself during winter. Besides, the effluent emanating from the biogas plant can be used as fertilizer, which contains a good percentage of nitrogen, potassium and phosphate.
But simultaneously its (effluent) unpleasant bad colour, odour and presence of pathogens, and high BOD content, limit its use for agricultural/horticultural purposes or for direct discharge into a water body.
Since, Sulabh is maintaining 8500 public toilet complexes spread all over the country, of which 200 are linked with biogas plants, it was an important task for the organization to make the effluent free from odour, colour and most of the pathogens, to use it safely for agricultural purposes. After a series of experiments, the organization has developed a new and convenient technology by which the effluent of human excreta based biogas plant turns into a colourless, odourless and almost pathogen-free liquid manure. The technology is based on filtration of effluent by being subjected to sedimentation, then passed through sand and aeration tanks and then through activated charcoal followed by exposure under ultraviolet rays. These processes make the effluent colourless, odourless and free from organic particles with the UV eliminating the bacteria. It reduces BOD and COD of the waste water drastically. Since such wastewater is from human wastes, its BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) which is around 200 mg/l, comes down to less than 10mg/l after treatment – safe for aquaculture, agriculture and gardening or discharge into any water body without causing pollution. It can also be used for floor cleaning.
In developing the design of the biogas plant a choice had to be made between constructing the plant with a flexible dome or a fixed dome. Experience of working flexible dome revealed that sufficient temperature does not develop because of which in winter the quantity produced of biogas decreased. Also, at times gases escaped which led to spread of foul smell. But when I tried working the plant with a fixed dome the said disadvantages stood removed. Sulabh now therefore follows construction of plant with a fixed dome.
Based on the ‘Sulabh Model’ design, 200 biogas plants of 35 to 60 cum capacity have been constructed by Sulabh in different States of the country so far.
After touching briefly upon the decentralized system of human waste treatment, based on functioning of the biogas plant with SET technology, mentioned below are some of the advantages attached with it:-
- The cost of collection of sewage and operation & maintenance of the system are very low.
- No manual handling of human excreta is required.
- It is aesthetically and socially accepted.
- Biogas can be used for different purposes.
- Treated effluent is safe for reuse in agriculture, gardening, or for discharge into any water body.
- (vi) In drought-prone areas treated effluent can be used for cleaning floors of public toilets.
- (vii) If discharged into the sewer, pollution load on STP is much lower.
Thus, the decentralized system of sewage treatment through biogas technology is more effective for minimizing financial burden to combat pollution. And, has multiple benefits – sanitation, bioenergy and manure.
The design has been approved by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources, Govt. of India, for its implementation through the State nodal agencies.
Q4. At how many places you have constructed the Sulabh Toilet? And whats the result there?
1. No. of household toilets constructed/converted – 13 lakhs
This number of toilets has been constructed in 1628 towns of the country covering 1576 local bodies spread over 519 districts of the country.
2. No. of public toilets constructed and being maintained - 8,500
Q5. Are you happy with the Bharat Swachh Andolan? Do you think India can reform its sanitation sector?
Answer: I am of the view that it should be possible for Bharat Swachh Andolan to be a great success. The reasons why I say so is that the Andolan has been initiated in the country at the highest level that is at the level of the Hon’ble Prime Minister himself. The second reason is that a target has been set within a given time framework. It should be possible to achieve the target on the basis of facts detailed below and by adopting a procedure as follows:-
The target is to cover every household numbering 13 crores and 50 thousand in the country by 2018-19. We have half of the year 2015-16 and 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 that is three and a half years to meet the target. If a motivator will construct 15 toilets in a month then 180 toilets can be built in one year. Accordingly, 540 toilets in 3 years can be built by one motivator. Thus, 2 lac 50 thousand motivators will construct 13 crore 50 thousand toilets in three years. Even if the pace of work is slow the target can be achieved by 2019 as set by Hon’ble Prime Minister.
The target thus is achievable and definitely can be so done.
The question that arises is how will finances for the purpose be found. The way out could be to involve institutions/individuals of high net worth in addition to the budgetary resource of the Government. On the basis of what has been said above a rough and ready estimate of cost involved would be as follows:-
If the cost of a toilet is taken to be Rs. 30,000 to ensure quality construction including escalation cost in three years, then the requirement of fund works out to Rs. 3,60,000 crore to accomplish this mammoth task.
In the aforementioned scenario the role that Sulabh can play needs consideration. It will be useful to remember that the target is to cover both urban and rural areas. Whereas it is not difficult to find agency/ies for construction of toilets in urban areas, the difficulty is faced when such a huge number has to be built in rural areas. Secondly, the time frame stands reduced from 5 to now only 3 Â½ years since the target has to be achieved by mid 2019. Thirdly, one has to think of agencies other than of the government and commercial banks where prescribed rules and regulations involve time consuming fulfillment of procedural formalities. This is and will be so even if funds will be available considering that the Government has taken the step of imposition of cess (on tax) of .5%.
Another way therefore is to take the route of roping in business houses under the implementation of CSR programme.
Government fortunately has already mandated that 2% of net profit should be spent by a corporate house to discharge its social responsibility. Though, the spend can be on and for various purposes like construction of a school or a dispensary or on housing or sanitation if the target set under Swachh Bharat Mission of the Prime Minister is to be attained then the endeavor should be that most of the mandated fund amount is spent on sanitation. The usefulness of the spend will enhance manifold if it is done in areas which still stand unserved, that is as far as India is concerned it will be the rural areas from the point of view of sanitation. The amount of fund requirement will depend upon whether the area to be covered will be a village or a panchayat or a block or even a district. All this, will though need advocacy and persuasion calling for personal involvement of top management of the business houses. I am however happy to say that Sulabh has been able to persuade some business houses and public sector undertakings to undertake construction of toilets in some rural areas to discharge their Corporate Social Responsibility. Thus, in Ludhiana, Bharti Foundation has taken up the task of covering the entire Ludhiana district with the aim of construction of toilets especially in rural areas. Some of the other prominent public sector undertakings which have come up with finance for construction of toilets by Sulabh are as follow:-
- Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC)
- Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)
- Tehri Hydro Development Corporation India Limited (THDCIL)
- Maruti Suzuki
- Sterlite Industries Ltd.
- Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd.
- Cholamandalam Investment & Finance Company Ltd.
- Odisha Power Generation Corporation (OPGC)
Q6. You have crafted a very beautiful song on River Ganga and Pollution, congratulations for that. But how do we change the human mind set from polluting the Ganga?
Answer: The reasons which have led to pollution of Ganga are as follows:-
Reduction in the volume that flows through Ganga because of melting of the glaciers primary cause of which is climate change. The government is engaged in this task and has already communicated to the world body concerned with climate change proposals linked with a reduction in carbon footprint.
Moreover, there is the fact that today Ganga bears the brunt of pollution caused by increasing population living on its banks through its course. Again, the government is seized of this problem.
Thirdly there have been encroachments which are increasing with the passage of time involving human waste finding its way into the river and further increasing pollution.
Besides, some culture related factors also have led to pollution of the river. For example disposal of dead bodies in the river Ganga is considered holy and an act of piety. Here again Government have stepped in by increasing the number of electric crematoriums which gradually are gaining in popularity. There is the factor of immersion of idols after the end of the relevant. Awareness campaign have been conducted in this direction.
I thank you for appreciating the Ganga song penned by me. It was a humble effort of mine which I am sure will have its own impact in creating and enhancing awareness. Though running the risk of sounding vain-glorious, I may be permitted to say that my song is only a link in the long tradition of other well-known songs, poems and paeans having being composed and sung celebrating or descriptions written about mother-Ganga viz Ganga Lahiri or Nehru’s Will etc. etc.
For cleaning the Ganga, I believe this is an individual social responsibility. The people should not throw flowers, flowers petals, diyas, etc. inside the Ganga river who visit the ghats of the Holy Ganga.
Q7. What message would you like to deliver to the Water Network members?
Answer: My message is that however big the contribution of government, NGOs and Corporate bodies may be, success in the ultimate analysis depends upon people’s participation. Therefore, let there be more power to the people.
I am also of the view that NGO, Government and the Corporate sector and other agencies if cooperate will gradually help in the success of clean Ganga mission and also Swachh Bharat Andolan.