Hybrid treatment systems: a paradigm shift to achieve sustainable wastewater treatment and recycling in India
Here is the link for my policy article on wastewater treatment and recycling in rural, peri-urban, and cities in India.
Here are the main recommendations:
1) Where possible (rural or urban), Natural Treatment Systems (NTSs) preferably CWs, should be used first as they require very low operational energy and annual O&M costs are low.
2) If full-fledged use of NTSs is not possible due to land availability constraints, then Hybrid treatment systems should be used - Hybrid treatment system (HTS) means using mechanized treatment technologies (such as ASP) for BOD removal up to 30 mg/L and for any further BOD removal NTSs such as CWs should be used.
Here is the link for the full article: