Irrigated Landscapes, Produced Scarcity, and Adaptive Social Institutions in Rajasthan, India
Trevor Birkenholtz, Department of Geography, Rutgers University
This article employs an actor–network (ANT) and materialist approach to examine the changing relations among nature, society, and technology in dynamic groundwater-irrigated landscapes. Drawing on a case study from Rajasthan, India, it merges these frameworks to advance our understanding of the role that tubewell irrigation technologies play, through their associations with other objects, in altering existing social power relationships, environmental practices, and socioecologies, paying attention to the directedness of these relationships.
This article demonstrates, first, that tubewell adoption is made possible through the creation of tubewell partnerships, a new social institution. Second, although tubewell adoption initially enhances production, significant groundwater withdrawal negatively alters groundwater and soil chemistry. This undermines farmers’ abilities to grow highyielding seed varieties, prompting a return to traditional crops, and exacerbates existing social inequalities both within and between partnerships. Third, irrigation practices and daily production activities follow from the demands and constraints of the tubewell, enabling and constraining human and nonhuman action.
- Basin Irrigation
- Irrigated Landscapes
- Irrigation Management
- Irrigation Scheduling