In Pakistan, water contamination poses a serious risk to the population's health. The quality of our drinking water is poorly controlled and monitored. When compared to the other 122 countries, Pakistan has the 80th-best quality drinking water. Across the country, coliforms, harmful metals, and pesticides have contaminated drinking water sources. The World Health Organization's standards for safe drinking water are often disregarded. The main elements contributing to the deterioration of water quality are human activities, such as the inappropriate disposal of municipal and industrial effluents and the indiscriminate applications of agrochemicals in agriculture. It is now widely accepted that microorganisms and chemical contaminants are the root causes, if not the sole causes, of many public health issues.