How can we control biofilm growth in drinking water pipeline without increasing disinfectant dosing as WQ standards and not to end up with disinfectant byproducts due to excess disinfectant?

Disinfectants obviously controls biofilm growth. But increasing dosing pose health problems as well. In addition, unpleasant taste and odour are results of increased dosing. Are there any other methods to control biofilm growth. Some studies say biofilm growth improves the efficiency of systems by reducing pipe roughness initially, however it increases when pipes are old. What is the better cheaper method to clean biofilms from older pipes?